An Orthognathic surgery is also known as corrective Jaw surgery. Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the various conditions of the jaw. Orthognathic surgery can also be done to perform corrective surgery of other facial structures. This type of corrective surgery/ Orthognathic surgery is also used for treating various congenital conditions which may cause facial deformities like the cleft palate. For all issues related to the jaws, generally the patient is expected to wear braces all throughout the surgical process. After a patient undergoes an Orthognathic surgery, the problems that occur on the face because of the malposition of the jaw get completely rectified. If you are facing problems of jaw that your dentist is unable to fix, you may have to visit a plastic surgeon that will make your treatment plan once he had made the diagnosis of the problems in your jaw area.
Orthognathic surgery is a collective term for various other procedures which are performed to correct various specific problems of the jaws. Some of the procedures are as follows:-
- BSSO: – Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy is one of the most commonly performed surgeries for rectifying dentofacial problems. A BSSO is generally performed when there is mandibular asymmetry, mandibular excess or mandibular deficiency. So, if the lower jaw is too small or long generally it is corrected by a BSSO. A BSSO helps in restoring the correct alignment of the upper and lower jaw and also can give great aesthetic outcome. In this surgery, the jaw bone is accessed via an incision that is made below the teeth. Depending upon the desired outcome the jaw bone is cut and repositioned.
- Mandibular Angle Reduction: – Mandibular angle reduction surgery is performed to give a person more oval shaped face and smoother jaw line. The prominence or the angularity of the jaw could be caused by the shape of the bone or the overlying muscle. In a mandibular angle reduction surgery the lower edge and the corners of the lower jaw is softened. Mandibular angle reduction is done through an intraoral approach. Generally, mandibular angle reduction surgery involves a three point approach. It means that not only the two pints of the jaw but the chin is also treated for proper restoration of contours.
- Genioplasty: – It is the surgery which is performed for restoring the shape and symmetry of the chin so that it looks proportionate to the lower jaw. The projection of the chin can be enhanced by increasing or decreasing the height of the chin with the help of Genioplasty. The chin can be augmented or modified with the help of chin implants which can impart the required contours to the chin. When Genioplasty is performed with mandibular angle reduction more prominent results can be achieved. The chin implants which are used can be made up of synthetic materials like silicone or bone may be taken from the patient’s own body also.
- Le Fort’s osteotomy: – Misalignment or malocclusion of the jaw and the teeth can be corrected by Le fort osteotomy. Le fort osteotomy can be of three types namely Le fort I Osteotomy, Le fort II Osteotomy and Le fort III Osteotomy.
- Le fort I osteotomy is performed in cases where the upper jaw needs to be realigned without any involvement of the cheeks or the nose. Le fort I osteotomy is also used in treating a cleft palate.
- Le fort II osteotomy is a very rare procedure and is performed in cases where the midfacial features have to be moved anteriorly along with the upper jaw arch. In this procedure, the mid facial can be corrected three dimensionally.
- Le Fort III osteotomy is performed to corrected underdeveloped midfacial and the consequent functional and aesthetic issues that can be caused by it.
- Zygomatic surgery: – Zygomatic surgery is performed using ORIF and can be done using 2 point fixation or three point fixation of the zygoma. There are multiple objectives of a Zygomatic surgery which include restoration of the normal facial structure, restoration of masticatory function and normal sensation in the face.
- Maxillary reduction surgery: – A maxillary reduction surgery is done to restore proper function and alignment of the jaws. It also enhances the overall appearance of the face. Maxillary reduction surgery is primarily focused on the upper jaw to treat an open bite or a cross bite. A maxillary reduction surgery can also be done in cases where too much or too little of the upper gums are visible. In the surgery, the bone above the teeth is cut and the jaw and the teeth are repositioned in the desired manner.
What is the requirement of a corrective jaw surgery?
An improperly positioned jaw can cause severe discomfort. Therefore if you are facing problems in your face and jaw area and have been advised to undergo a corrective jaw surgery, it will help you in the following ways:-
- A corrected jaw will help you be able to chew your food properly.
- An Orthognathic surgery also helps in improving the overall movement of tongue inside the mouth.
- A corrective jaw surgery/ Orthognathic surgery can also fix an open bite.
- An Orthognathic surgery also helps in restoration of the symmetry of facial features.
- The pain because of the movements of the TMJ joints can be fixed with a corrective jaw surgery.
- Blunt facial trauma mandates an Orthognathic surgery.
- The problem of teeth grinding can be corrected with a corrective jaw surgery.
Risks of an Orthognathic surgery:-
An Orthognathic or a corrective jaw surgery may be the best and the only treatment option for many patients. However, an Orthognathic surgery is a major surgery and the risk factors associated with an Orthognathic surgery are as follows:-
- Improperly healed jaw which may cause the jaw to relapse.
- Loss of some part of the jaw.
Once the corrective jaw surgery is done, the patient is given some instructions so as to ensure that the corrective jaw surgery is successful. The patient is given dietary instructions to ensure there is no strain on the jaws after the Orthognathic surgery. The patients need to follow a strict oral hygiene routine after the Orthognathic surgery. The patient is generally advised to rest after the Orthognathic surgery.
If the Orthognathic surgery is done properly then you should observe following changes in your jaws and face:-
- No problem in chewing and swallowing.
- There should be no more pain in the moving the lower jaw bones.
- Your speech should also be improved.
- All improvements will lead to you feeling better about yourself.
What are the things to know before getting an Orthognathic surgery in India?
In India, often people ignore problems of jaws as merely an aesthetic issue. Infact, many dentists in India make a wrong diagnosis of the problem and instead of referring the patient for a corrective jaw surgery, they make the patient wear braces for many years. This not only delays the corrective jaw surgery but in some cases makes the problem virtually untreatable. Therefore, if you are in India and feel that despite the best treatment you are not feeling any improvement in your jaws you may just need to visit a plastic surgeon for an Orthognathic surgery. In India, Orthognathic surgery is performed in some of the top hospitals in Mumbai. Dr. Debraj Shome who is a Mumbai based best oculoplastic surgeon has treated patients from not only Mumbai but from the rest of India as well. He is the best expert in treating facial deformities. He has treated numerous patients from all over India for jaw correction. In fact, he has also performed many surgeries completely pro- bono at his Mumbai Clinics. His expertise is valued by the top hospitals in Mumbai where he is regularly invited to perform Orthognathic surgery and train the budding doctors from India. At various medical conferences in and around Mumbai, he has shared his knowledge on the subject with his peers and juniors. Over the years, there has been a steady increase in the number of patients who come to Mumbai for the best Orthognathic surgery. Various charitable health organizations of the world regularly bring patients to Mumbai and Dr. Shome is one of those few plastic surgeons who perform this noble task of treating lesser privileged patients. The Esthetic Clinics, which have been co- founded by Dr. Shome in Mumbai, are famous for their complete success rate. The total number of patients in these clinics who come for corrective jaw surgery or Orthognathic surgery includes patients from all over India. Parents of very young children travel all the way to Mumbai from all over India solely because of the trust they have in one of the top plastic surgeons of the country. Since the Orthognathic surgery can be a risky procedure, Dr. Shome ensures that the entire process is personally supervised by him from beginning to the end at his clinics in Mumbai. In India, there are only a few super- specialty clinics dealing with maxillofacial corrective surgeries however the top institution for the same is The Esthetic Clinic which is in Mumbai. Dr. Shome has been awarded with “Best Plastic surgeon Of India’ consecutively many times and his work in his field has been recognized by various medical agencies from all over India. In Mumbai, Dr. Shome has plans to expand his chain of clinics which would be beneficial for the patients of Mumbai and will provide more scope and top treatment options for patients from all over India. Dr. Shome is constantly finding new ways and methods to get the best treatment methods and top and advanced medical equipment to India.