The prominence of our face on our body makes it very vulnerable to direct injuries and trauma. It is not surprising that fractures of the jaw which are also known as mandibular fractures are one of the top reasons why facial surgery is done on patients. Anatomically, the base of the human skull and the mandible form a bony ring. It would seem obvious that mandible fractures will cause the skull to fracture as well. However, surprisingly, in most cases mandibular fractures occur completely in isolation. In India, mandibular fractures are one of the most common injuries sustained by people. Mandibular fractures also cause the TMJ to dislocate and this requires surgery for complete treatment. The trauma that causes mandibular fractures is generally of very high intensity therefore the muscles which are meant to aid the movement of the mandibular joint also get damaged.
How do mandibular fractures take place?
The top part of the joint of the mandible is made up of temporal bone. So, a mandibular fracture happens when the jaw or the mandibular as well as the temporal bone fracture due to some accident. The mandibular fracture causes ripple effects on the mandibular area. Not only the joints but also the condyles, which are round protrusions on the jaw, also suffer from fracture simultaneously. High intensity impact causes the muscles of the mouth to also rupture.
What are the causes of mandibular fracture?
Statistics have shown that in India maximum cases of mandibular fractures occur due to road accidents. This number is followed by cases of violent abuse. In both of these cases, alcohol is believed to be the root cause. This number is followed by injuries due to sports and falls. According to the numbers, in India more men are victims of mandibular fractures as compared to women. Sadly, in India most women who suffer from mandibular fractures are the victims of severe domestic abuse.
Signs and symptoms of mandibular fracture:-
The top symptom of mandibular fractures is misalignment of teeth and excruciating pain in the mandibular joint. The mandibular area becomes very sensitive to even the slightest touch. The pain and swelling after mandibular fracture are more prevalent near the ears. Since the mandibular fracture also affects the nerves, the patients feel pain in moving the mandible and there is also numbness due to the fracture. The teeth also become loose post the fracture.
Treatment and surgery of mandibular fracture in India:-
Before the treatment and surgery for mandibular fracture can begin, in India a diagnosis is done. The best approach of the treatment and surgery is to assess the other injuries that may have occurred along with mandibular fracture. Treatment is done to clear the airway in case the tongue has rolled because of the fracture. So, the first step of the treatment is to ensure that airway is cleared in best way possible. The best way to deal with mandibular fractures is to ensure that treatment of all associated serious injuries is also considered. If only mandibular fracture has taken place, then the treatment is begun with antibiotics first. The surgery for mandibular fractures is done a few days later.
The surgery for mandibular fractures can be either done by reduction surgery or fixation surgery. The reduction surgery can be done by open or the closed technique. In reduction surgery, the ends of the broken mandible are put together. An external fixation surgery is done where the bone is broken into small pieces. External fixation surgery is also done in cases where there is infection in bones. After the surgery it is ensured that the bone does not move for at least three weeks. Complete healing period after the surgery depends upon extent of injuries. In most cases, four weeks after the surgery the patients is able to move his mouth. To keep the bones in place, external fixator and screws may also be placed after the surgery. The treatment and surgery techniques for management of mandibular fractures mostly depend upon nature of injuries in India. But at the end what would be the best approach for the treatment or surgery is a decision which depends on the surgeon.
Treatment and surgery for mandibular fractures can be handled in the best manner by maxillofacial surgeons. Maxillofacial surgery is a specialty which requires training in medicine and orthodontics. A maxillofacial surgeon can perform surgery for mandibular fractures in the best manner because he is specifically trained for treatment and surgery of craniomaxillofacial complex and other anatomical structures. Not many people have clarity about maxillofacial injuries in India. As mentioned above, India has some of the most severe cases of road accidents and domestic cases reported from around the world. Quite contrary to popular belief, cases are reported not only from rural India but urban cities like Mumbai as well. One of the top reasons of mandibular fractures in India is driving under the influence of alcohol.
Any discussion about maxillofacial surgery in India is complete without the mention of Dr. Debraj Shome from Mumbai who is one of the top oculoplastic, facial plastic and maxillofacial surgeons in India. He practices in Mumbai at his own chain of specialty clinics and is also a consultant to some of the top hospitals in Mumbai. He has specialization and fellowships in maxillofacial surgery and is considered to be the best in Mumbai. Today, because of Dr. Debraj’s approach to surgery, the standards of maxillofacial surgery have improved tremendously in Mumbai. In most cities like Mumbai one can find varying standards of treatments and services. But Dr. Shome believes that quality healthcare should reach to every corner of India and should not be limited to urban areas like Mumbai. He regularly treats patients from cities other than Mumbai. At his specialty medical venture, The Esthetic Clinics in Mumbai he ensures that all patients who come to him are treated holistically without any post-surgery complications. Dr. Shome’s patients from Mumbai trust his expertise without any doubt. Dr. Debraj wants to make Mumbai the hub for the best reconstructive, plastic and maxillofacial surgery and treatments. He wants to make quality facilities available to rest of India also for which he keeps visiting other places from Mumbai.
Some decisions about your health can have profound impact on quality of your life. If you want the best surgeon in the country to treat you, you must visit Mumbai. The Esthetic Clinics have several branches in Mumbai which are always open for treatment and surgery of their patients.